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Thermostatic Baths are used for incubation and inactivation of cultures, warming bacteriological media, processing chemical reactions or thawing frozen samples in research labs, standard and special labs that deal with medicine, science and industry. Modern thermostatic baths feature microprocessor controlled temperature regulation, excellent temperature consistency (usually ±0.1 °C), digital temperature readout, independent overtemperature protection systems and much more. Volumes vary from several liters in bench top models to tens of liters in industrial models.
Cryostats are used to maintain low cryogenic temperatures of samples or devices mounted within the cryostat. Low temperatures may be maintained within a cryostat by using various refrigeration methods. True cryogenic temperature are most commonly attained using cryogenic fluid bath such as liquid helium while double-stage compressor systems are capable of cooling samples down to -100 °C using only electrical power. Cryostats have numerous applications within science, engineering, and medicine.